- Technical Debt and Design Death: How to ensure you can deliver business value in the future as well as in the present; by Kane Mar and Michael James
- Managing Technical Debt - a whitepaper, by Steve McConnell (requires registration, which is free, but also see the blog-entry 10X Software Development - Technical Debt)
- Design debt economics: A vocabulary for describing the causes, costs, and cures for software maintainability problems; by John Elm, IBM developerWorks, June 2009
- Managing Technical Debt; by Tom Brazier
- Software Debt - Depreciation of Value for Software Assets and Technical Debt - Reducing Internal Quality for Short-term Gain, by Chris Sterling, from his forthcoming book Managing Software Debt (also see his video presentation)
- the current design of the system, versus ...
- a design that is minimally complex yet sufficiently complete to ensure correctness & consistency for timely delivery.
The economic impact of technical debt is directly related to the cost of complexity and its resulting “friction” against the velocity of the development team (and, subsequently, upon the ease of system evolution).
Technical debt can be caused by under-engineering just as much as it can be caused by overengineering (overdesigning). It is a difficult, delicate and dynamic balancing act to achieve the necessary and sufficient amount of design to implement only the essential complexity required by system:
- Sometimes we knowingly (under great pressure) do something the "quick & dirty" way, with the intent to "do it right" later (but not too late).
- Sometimes we try to do too much to soon, and elaborate or implement details of the requirements when we and our customers/users haven't yet learned enough about the true needs of the system.
- Sometimes we haven't yet learned enough about good design, and unintentionally violate design principles, resulting in undesirable dependencies that make code or other work-products hard to change.
- Sometimes we neglect to properly "tend" to the design and don't give it the necessary amount of ongoing care and feeding needed to keep it "fit" and "supple."
That's just my two cents on the subject of course. What do others have to say about it?
Wikipedia defines Technical Debt by referring to the words of Ward Cunningham, who first drew the comparison between technical complexity and debt in a 1992 experience report:
"Shipping first time code is like going into debt. A little debt speeds development so long as it is paid back promptly with a rewrite.... The danger occurs when the debt is not repaid. Every minute spent on not-quite-right code counts as interest on that debt. Entire engineering organizations can be brought to a stand-still under the debt load of an unconsolidated implementation, object-oriented or otherwise."
On the C2 Wiki, Ward defined Technical Debt as:
“Technical Debt includes those internal things that you choose not to do now, but which will impede future development if left undone. This includes deferred refactoring. Technical Debt doesn't include deferred functionality, except possibly in edge cases where delivered functionality is "good enough" for the customer, but doesn't satisfy some standard (e.g., a UI element that isn't fully compliant with some UI standard).”
Martin Fowler's definition of Technical Debt is also frequently cited:
"Doing things the quick and dirty way sets us up with a technical debt, which is similar to a financial debt. Like a financial debt, the technical debt incurs interest payments, which come in the form of the extra effort that we have to do in future development because of the quick and dirty design choice. We can choose to continue paying the interest, or we can pay down the principal by refactoring the quick and dirty design into the better design. Although it costs to pay down the principal, we gain by reduced interest payments in the future."
In his introduction to Refactoring to Patterns, Joshua Kerievsky quite simply defines design debt as follows:
Design debt occurs when you don't consistently do three things.
Few systems remain completely free of design debt. Wired as we are, humans just don't write perfect code the first time around. We naturally accumulate design debt ....
- Remove duplication.
- Simplify your code.
- Clarify you code's intent.
Due to ignorance or a commitment to "not fix what ain't broken," many programmers and teams spend little time paying down design debt.... In financial terms, if you don't pay off a debt, you incur late fees. If you don't pay your late fees, you incur higher late fees. The more you don't pay, the worse your fees and payments become. Compound interest kicks in, and as time goes on, getting out of debt becomes an impossible dream. So it is with design debt.
James Shore describes Design Debt in much the same manner:
When the cost of change increases, it's because the design quality is decreasing. Since retiring or rewriting software means writing off a huge investment, you wouldn't expect any team to let design quality deteriorate to that point. Yet it happens all the time. Why?
Design debt" explains the problem. When a team is working under pressure, they take shortcuts that compromise design quality. It's like taking out a high-interest loan. The team gets a short-term boost in speed, but from that point forward, changes are more expensive: they're paying interest on the loan. The only way to stop paying interest is to pay back the loan's principle and fix the design shortcuts.
Steve McConnell defines Technical Debt as follows:
“Technical Debt” refers to delayed technical work that is incurred when technical short cuts are taken, usually in pursuit of calendar-driven software schedules. Just like financial debt, some technical debts can serve valuable business purposes. Other technical debts are simply counterproductive. The ability to take on debt safely, track their debt, manage their debt, and pay down their debt varies among different organizations. Explicit decision making before taking on debt and more explicit tracking of debt are advised.
Mary Poppendieck gives a definition of Technical Debt in her upcoming book Leading Lean Software Development:
“All successful software gets changed. So if we think we’re working on code that will be successful … we need to keep it easy to change. Anything that makes code difficult to change is technical debt. Just like any other debt, the cost of paying off technical debt gets more and more expensive over time. … Technical debt drives the total cost of software ownership relentlessly higher … eventually we will have to pay it off or the system will go bankrupt.”
Kane Mar, in Technical Debt and Design Death, describes technical debt and later likens it to the effects of entropy:
Technical debt is simply defined as deferred work that is not directly related to new functionality, but necessary for the overall quality of the system. Examples of this include delaying upgrades to necessary tools and frameworks, delaying the refactoring of overly complex system components, and so on. If this technical work is necessary for the health of the system, then what happens when it is ignored for too long? What happens when several layers of cruft accumulate and there are no unit tests to aid refactoring? ...
In thermodynamics, “entropy” refers to the randomness of the components of a system. When the term is applied to software it is considered a measure of disorder. Thus entropy in software is the result of changes made to the code base, including bug fixes, updates to existing functionality, and the addition of new functionality. But over a period of time, these small changes can snowball to create a system that is difficult to change, overly connected to external systems, and lacks clear delineation of functionality.
Chris Sterling, in his upcoming book on Architecture in an Agile Organization, distinguishes between Software Debt and Technical Debt:
Software debt accumulates when focus remains on immediate completion while neglecting changeability of the system. The accumulation of debt does not impact software delivery immediately. At first it creates a sense of increased feature delivery with management, business stakeholders and the team. Business stakeholders respond well to the pace of delivered functionality. What they don’t understand is that this only represents an illusion of earlier returns on their investment.
This allows both the business and software delivery teams to live in the illusion of status quo far longer than they should. At some point previously small forms of decay in the system become large enough to affect our software delivery to the point that working harder and longer doesn’t result in success.
Debt is made glaringly visible when the team works on stabilizing the software functionality late in the release cycle. Integration, testing, and bug fixing is unpredictable and does not get resolved adequately before the release. People involved in the project stay late working to get the release out the door. It is now too late to pay back the debt accrued during the feature development.
The following sources constitute what I call software debt:
- Technical Debt: those activities that a team or team members chooses not to do now and will impede future development if left undone
- Quality Debt: diminishing ability to verify functional and technical quality of entire system
- Configuration Management Debt: integration and release management become more risky, complex, and error-prone
- Design Debt: cost of adding average sized features is increasing to more than writing from scratch
- Platform Experience Debt: availability and cost of people to work on system features are becoming limited
Over at the Agile-in-a-Flash blog, Jeff Langr and Tim Ottinger provide a flashcard of tips & truths about technical debt, along with a more detailed discussion about its nature and origins. They distill several nuggets of wisdom like:
- Incurring technical debt means your velocity slows down and you will deliver less value
- The cost of getting out-of-debt is compounded over time: the longer you wait, the faster it grow!
- If you plan to incur technical debt, the persons responsible must have a workable plan to pay it off!
- “Interest only” payments won’t improve things
- Pay early, pay often, and pay-as-you-go. (The only other options are bankruptcy or death.)
- Remember: Those with the worst debt problems often have the most difficulty imagining a life without borrowing!
So how might we properly measure/monitor and account for technical debt? Well, some of the above papers I mentioned have some good ideas. Some that address it more explicitly are:
- Israel Gat's Agile Executive Articles on Technical Debt
- Monetizing Technical Debt (also see other InfoQ.com articles on Technical Debt)
- An Approximate Measure of Technical Debt by James Shore
- Evaluate your technical debt with Sonar (SONAR is a free open-source tool)
- Martin Fowler writes about Estimated Interest
- In Does Cost Accounting Cause Crappy Code? Amr Elssamadisy suggests using throughput accounting (from TOC) instead of cost-accounting for understanding the cost of design debt
- Repaying Technical Debt, by Simon Baker
- Software Entropy: Don’t Tolerate Broken Windows, and Zero-Tolerance Construction by Andy Hunt and Dave Thomas
- The Cost of Complexity and Coupling, by Mark Heath
- Coding Horrors: Paying Down your Technical Debt, by Jeff Atwood
- What Testers Can Do about Technical Debt (Part1 and Part 2), by Johanna Rothman (also see Johanna's earlier essay Climbing Out of Technical Debt)
- Technical Debt - How not to ignore it!, by Henrik Kniberg
- Get out of Technical Debt Now!, by Andy Lester
- Continous Refactoring and the Cost of Decay, by Patrick W. Welsh
- Agile Advice on Technical Debt, by Mishkin Bertieg
- A Fresh Look at Technical Debt, an InfoQ.com summary of a Technical Debt Workshop
- Managing your Analysis debt, by Ellen Gottesdiener
- Dissecting Technical Debt, an InfoQ.com summary from Agile techniques
- Paying Down Technical Debt, by Brandon Savage
- Refinance your Technical Debt Just Like Your Mortgage
- Managing Software Debt, by Chris Sterling (also see video presentation)
- Fighting technical debt with the Wall of Pain, by Jimmy Boggard
- Development Psychology, technical debt and the next feature syndrome
- Where does technical debt come from?, by David Christiansen
- Technical Debt - deficit spending for geeks, by Dave Churchville
- Five Kinds of Technical Debt, by Ian Cartwright
- Technical Debt: The threshold of acceptable pain, by (Technoetic) Steve Bate
- Technical Debt: Transparency and Customer Communication, by Ron Jeffries
- Technical Debt Quadrants, by Martin Fowler (also see Design Stamina Hypothesis)
- We must ship now and deal with the consequences, by (Uncle) Bob Martin - a response to Martin Fowler's article above
- Don't Enron your software project, by Aaron Erickson
- Technical Debt: What is it? The Warning Signs and Paying it Off, by Catherine Powell